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Узбекский / Английский

Модератор: Dragan

Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:36

Examples:


Bizning hovlimiz katta. – Our yard is big.

Sening do’sting aqlli. – Your friend is smart.

Bu sening kitobingmi? – Is this your book?

Bizning auditoriya katta. – Our audience is huge.

Sening ko’zlaring juda chiroyli. – Your eyes are beautiful.

Sizning akangiz qayerda ishlaydi? – Where does your brother work?

Maktabning hovlisi chiroyli. – The school yard is beautiful.

Sizning familiyangiz nima? – What's your last name?

Sizning otingiz nima? – What is your name?

Shaharning ko‘chalari chiroyli. – The streets of the city are beautiful.

Karimning otasi – o‘qituvchi. – Karim's father is a teacher.

Sinf jurnali qayerda? – Where's the cool magazine?

Biz Alisher Navoiyning she’rlarini o‘qidik. – We read Alisher Navoi's poems.

O‘qituvchimizning topshirig‘ini bajardik. – We have completed the teacher's task.

Ariqning suvi toza. – The water of the ditch is clean.

Bizning kutubxonamizda kitob ko‘p. – There are many books in our library.

Respublikamizning poytaxti – Toshkent. – The capital of our republic is Tashkent.

Toshkentning binolari chiroyli. – The buildings of Tashkent are beautiful.

Siz shaharning qaysi tumanida yashaysiz? – What area of the city do you live in?

Kecha sening maqolangni o‘qidik. – We read your article yesterday.

Mening fikrim shu. – That's my opinion.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:37

The possessive case can be formalized - with the suffix -ning, and unformulated - without the suffix -ning.


The formalized possessive case denotes a specific, definite object:

Mening singlim ishga ketdi – My sister has gone to work
O‘quvchining otasi maktabga keldi – The student's father came to school
Umarning o‘rtoqlari kinoga ketdilar – Umar's comrades went to the cinema


Informal possessive indicates an indefinite meaning:

Shahar ko'chalari uzun va keng bo'lishi kerak – City streets should be long and wide
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:39

Often there are nouns in sentences for which the Possessor is not explicitly indicated.
Nouns in the 3rd person must be suffixed (-i or -si) in the following cases:


1. Ownership is known, even if the Possessor is not explicitly specified:

Shahardan tashqarida Sirdaryo oqadi. Daryosi sayozlashdi.
The Syrdarya River flows outside the city. The river became shallower.


2. It is said about a certain subject, the uniqueness of which is emphasized by the definition. In this case, -i (-si) serves as a definite article:

Bu Kickik Halqa yo’li.
This is the Little Ring Road.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:40

About haq, haqda, haqida


haq = truth,
haqda, haqida = about.


Bu kitob o'tmish olimlari haqida. - This book is about the scientists of the past.

but:

Nima haqda yozmoqchisiz? - What do you want to write about?
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:48

Present-Future Tense. Presonal Endings of Predicates



The simplest and most frequently used grammatical tense in the Uzbek language is Present-Future.

It is so called because the form of verbs (or other parts of speech as a predicate) does not change depending on when an event occurs, in the present or in the future. Time is determined by the context or adverb of time.

For the case of the present tense, this is an analogue of the English Present Simple. By the way, there is also an analogue of Present Continuous in the Uzbek language, but we will talk about this later.


Examples:

1. Men talabaman. Universitetda tarix fanini o'rganaman. Kechqurun kitob o'qiyman.
I am a student. I study history at university. I read books in the evenings. (Present)

2. Ertaga ishlamaymiz. Biz daryoga boramiz.
We will not work tomorrow. We will go to the river. (Future)


Sentences in the Present-Future are formed using the affixes "a" or "y" and "personal endings".

The personal ending is added to the verb or other part of speech used as a predicate. Since the predicate in the Uzbek language is almost always put at the end of a sentence, a significant part of sentences end in personal endings. This fact gives the originality of Turkic poetry.


Presonal Endings:


1st person, singular: “man”; plural: “miz”

2st person, singular: “san”; plural: “siz”

3st person, verb, singular: “di”; plural: “di(lar)”

3st person, other parts of speech, singular: no ending; plural: “(lar)”



Examples (predicate is a verb):


bilmoq – to know

Men bilaman – I know, I will know

Sen bilasan – You know, You will know

U biladi – He (she) knows, He (she) will know

Biz bilamiz – We know, We will know

Siz bilasiz – You know, You will know

Ular biladi OR Ular biladilar – They know, They will know


ishlamoq – to work

Men ishlayman – I work, I will work

Sen ishlaysan – You work, You will work

U ishlaydi – He (she) works, He (she) will work

Biz ishlaymiz – We work, We will work

Siz ishlaysiz – You work, You will work

Ular ishlaydi OR Ular ishlaydilar – They work, They will work



Examples (predicate is another part of speech):


Siz chiroylisiz – You are beautiful

Ular kichik – They are small

Ular bolalar – They are children

Biz uydamiz – We are at home

Men och emasman – I'm not hungry (When we use "emas" = "not", the personal ending is added to the word "emas"!)



If a personal ending is used, the pronoun is often omitted:


Dushanba kunlari ishlayman — I work on Mondays

Chiroylisiz – You are beautiful

Uydamiz – We are at home

Och emasman – I'm not hungry
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:50

The interrogative form of verbs in the present-future is formed using the affix -mi, which is added to the end of the word:

Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Ha, tushunaman. – Do you understand everything? Yes I understand.

Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Ha, ishlayman. – Will you work tomorrow? Yes, I will work.


The negative form of verbs in the present-future is formed by adding the affix -ma, which is inserted after the root. Since "ma" ends with a vowel, the affix "y" follows.

Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Yo'q tushunmayman. – Do you understand everything? No, I don't understand.

Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Yo'q, ishlamayman. – Will you work tomorrow? No, I will not work.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн июн 27, 2022 15:22

Time. Time of day. Frequently used adverbs of time


vaqt – time

payt – moment of time


tong – dawn

erta – morning

kun – day

kech – evening

tun - night


tongda – at dawn

ertalab - in the morning

kunduzi - in the afternoon

kechqurun - in the evening

tunda, kechasi - at night


hozir, endi – now

bugun – today

kecha – yesterday

ertaga – tomorrow
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн июн 27, 2022 15:23

Age


yosh – age; young


Siz necha yoshdasiz? - How old are you?


Men yigirma yoshdaman. - I'm twenty years old.

OR:

Men yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.

OR:

Yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.

Here "da" is the affix of the locative case; "man" – personal ending.


Similarly, we can ask and answer:


Men necha yoshdsman? - How old am I?

Siz qirq yoshdasiz. - You are fourty years old.


U necha yoshda? - How old is he (she)?

U ellik bir yoshda. - He (she) is fifty-one years old. (there is no personal ending here, because "yosh" is not a verb)


Akang necha yoshda? - How old is your brother?

Akam o'ttiz uchda. - My brother is thirty-three.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн июн 27, 2022 15:27

Verbs to memorize:


bor - there is/are, existing, have
Menda chelak bor - I have a bucket

bo'lmoq - to be, to take place, happen

Siz kim bo'lasiz? - Who are you?
Sog' bo'ling! - Be healthy!
Bor bo'ling! - I wish you to live!


bilmoq - to know
bilim - knowledge
tushunmoq - to understand

yashamoq - to live (anywhere)
qilmoq - to do

qaramoq - to look
ko'rmoq - to see

eshitmoq - to hear, to listen
tinglamoq - to listen
quloq solmoq - to listen
quloq bermoq - to listen

solmoq - to put

o'qimoq - to read; study (somewhere)
yozmoq - to write

gapirmoq - to speak, to talk
gaplashmoq - to speak, to talk, to negotiate
aytmoq - to say, to speak, to tell; to call, to invite
demoq - to tell (the words) (a case of direct speech, retelling)
so'zlamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate
(so'z - word)
so'ylamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate

yurmoq - to go, to move
bormoq - to go (anywhere); to reach

kelmoq - to come back
qolmoq - to stay (anywhere)
ketmoq - to go out
qochmoq - to run away
qaytmoq - to return

kechmoq - to overpass, to go through something; to forgive
o’tmoq - to pass, to step over

kirmoq - to enter
chiqmoq - to go outside, to leave

yordamlashmoq, yordam bermoq - to help
ko'maklashmoq - to provide support, to help, to help each other


Compound verbs:

chiqib qoldi – appeared ("leaving, got up")

qochib ketdi – disappeared ("left running away")

If we don't use "a" ("y"), but use a personal ending, this is the Past tense (qoldi, ketdi).


Antonyms:

boshlanmoq - to begin
bitirmoq - to finish
tugatmoq - to finish

turmoq - to stand, to stand up
o'tirmoq - to sit, to sit down

ochmoq - to open
yopmoq - to close

olmoq - to take
bermoq - to give
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн июн 27, 2022 15:33

Examples – sentences:


Bu yerga keling! - Come here!

Bu yerga qarang! - Look here!

Eshiting! Tinglang! Quloq soling! Quloq bering! - Listen!

Qaytaring! - Return!

Qaytaring! Takrorlang! - Repeat!

Javob bering! - Answer!

Ichkariga kiring! - Come on in!

Kitob o'qing! - Read a book!

Kitobni o'qing! - Read the book!

Derazani oching! - Open the window!

Derazani ochmang! - Don't open the window!

Buni qilma! - Don't do it!

Gapirmang! Gaplashmang! - Do not speak!

Menga yordam bering! - Help me!


Bu dori menga yordamlashadi. - This medicine helps me.

Ular bir-birlariga ko'maklashadi. - They help each other.

Ertaga u unga bir og'iz so'z aytmaydi. - Tomorrow he won't say a word to her.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июл 01, 2022 16:29

Earlier it was said that the possessive case affix "-ning" and the possessive affix "-i (-si)" can be omitted. Put crudely, they are used in the same case when in English we use the definite article "the", and are not used in the indefinite case.

Approximately the same can be said about the accusative affix "-ni".

That is, the accusative case, like the possessive, can be "formed" and "unformed".



Example of an unformed accusative case:

Tez orada uy quramiz. - We will build a house soon.

Here the word "uy" has no affix for the same reason that in English we use the indefinite article.


The cases of the formed accusative need to be described in more detail.

1. With proper names:

Rashidni toping - Find Rashid.


2. With personal, interrogative or reflexive pronouns:

U meni o’z uyiga taklif qildi. – He invited me to his house.

Siz kimni so’rayapsiz? – Who are you asking?

Anna o’zini hech kimga tanishtirmadi. – Anna did not introduce herself to anyone.


3. With nominalized adjectives:

Qizilni oling. - Take the red.

U bilganini so’zlab bersin. – Let him tell what he knows. (bilganini = bil + gan + ini, "gan" turns a verb into a past participle)

Birinchisini oling, men ikkinchisini olaman. – Get the first one, I'll get the second one.


4. With words defined by the form of the possessive case:

Uning otasini uchrashdim. – I met his father.


5. With words formed using the possessive case affix "-ning":

Men bugun kelganingni eshitdim. – I heard you came today.


6. With participles:

Kelganini ko’rdim. – I saw him come.


7. With verbal nouns:

Akam o’qishni bitirdi. – My brother graduated. (o’qishni: o’qimoq – to read; to study; “-ish” is an affix forming a verbal noun)


8. If a word in the accusative case is separated from the predicate by other members of the sentence:

Vazifani soat beshda tugatdik. – We finished the task at five o'clock.


9. When using some verbs of motion, we consider that we are in the accusative case and also use "-ni":

Shaharni kezmoq. – Walking around the city.


In this block materials of the textbook are used:
G.H.Bakieva et al., "Uzbek language for the CIS countries".
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июл 07, 2022 15:22

The logic of changing adverbs of time according to cases is best demonstrated by examples with the most commonly used adverbs.

We already know the words:

kun - day
tun – night
tong - dawn
erta - morning
kech - evening
kecha – yesterday; night
ertaga - tomorrow


ertaga ertalab – tomorrow morning
kecha ertalab – yesterday morning
ertaga kechqurun – tomorrow evening
ertalab – in the morning, kechqurun – in the evening
bugun kechqurun – tonight



avval – before, first
Avval ishni tugatamiz – We'll finish the job first
Sendan avval ko'rganman — I've seen it before you


oldin – before, ago
Ikki yil oldin – Two years ago
Ovqatdan oldin – Before meals
Sizdan sal oldin — Just before you

oldinda – ahead
oldinda boradi – goes ahead
oldindan – in advance
oldinga – forward

ilgari – ago, before; forward
Buyuk alloma ming yil(dan) ilgari yashagan edi — The great thinker lived 1000 years ago
U ilgari ketadi – He goes ahead

ilgaridan – in advance, from the beginning

keyin – after
U mendan keyin kirdi — He came in after me
keyinda – behind
U keyinda qoladi - He falls behind
keyindan – after

so'ng – after (the end of something), later
U bir yildan so'ng o'qishni bitiradi – He graduates in a year
ertadan so'ng — day after tomorrow



o’sha – that
o’sha kecha – that evening

o’shanda – at that time, then
O‘shanda mening shaxsiy uyim bor edi. – I had my own house then.

o’shandan buyon – since
buyon = bu+yon; yon – side, sidepiece

Qachondan beri? – Since when?
qachon – when, as soon as

paytgacha – until then (payt - moment of time)


yonida – beside (by place or time)
(yon – side, sidepiece)
yoniga – nearby
yonidan – past (something)

deraza yonida - next to the window
Aziz oʻchoq yoniga oʻtiradi. – Aziz sits by the fire.
U yonidan o'tib ketdi. – He walked past me.


yaqinda – recently; soon
(yaqin – close (object, person))
yaqindan – close (to something or someone); recently

Yaqinda daryoga bordik. - We went to the river recently.
Biz yaqindan tanishmiz. - We are intimately familiar.


allaqachon – a long time ago
allaqachon kelgan – already arrived
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июл 07, 2022 15:24

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июл 15, 2022 15:51

Ranglar – Colors



rang – color, tone, tinge

tus – hue, shade, color; appearance, manner



Qanday qizil rang sizni his qilishadi? – How does red make you feel?

Tarkibidagi gemoglobin qonga qizil tus beradi. – Hemoglobin, which is part of the blood, gives it a red color.



rangli – colored
rangli bo'yoqlar – colored paints

tusli – colored
qora tusli ot – black horse


bo'yoq – paint, color
gul – flower
guldasta – bunch of flowers
chechak – flower


Asosiy ranglar – Primary colors:

oq — white
qora — black
qizil — red
ko’k — blue
yashil — green
sariq — yellow



Bu qaysi rang? — What is color?
Bu qizil rang. — This is red.

Gulning rangi qanday? OR Gul qanday rangda? — What color is the flower?
Gulning rangi qizil. OR Gul qizil rangda. — The flower is red.






Uzbeks often say "ko’k" instead of the word "yashil". For example: ko’k choy (green tea), ko’k o't (green grass). But: yashil bo'yoq (green paint).


kokchoy.jpg
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июл 15, 2022 15:56

Uzbek tongue twister:


Oq choynakka oq qopqoq, ko’k choynakka ko’k qopqoq.
White lid on white teapot, blue lid on blue teapot.



rasm – drawing, picture
surat – picture, drawing
asar, san'at asari – work of art
rassom – artist
rasm chizmoq – to paint
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июл 22, 2022 10:36

Bog’lovchilar - Conjunctions



va – and

qalam va qog'oz - pencil and paper


ham … ham – both, also, as well as (after vowels sounds like "yam")

Bozorda ota ham, onasi ham savdo qiladi. - Both father and mother trade in the market.


hamda – as well as

Seshanba, chorshanba hamda payshanba kunlari bandman. - I am busy on Tuesday, Wednesday and also Thursday.


yo (yoxud, yoki) – or

kora yoki oq – black or white
Yo men boray, yo sen kel. – Either I go or you come



xoh … xoh – either

xoh bugun, xoh ertaga - either today or tomorrow


esa – but, as for

O'qituvchining esa hech narsadan xabari yo'q edi. - As for the teacher, he didn't know anything.


bo’lsa – but, as for

Men hamma narsani qildim, u bo'lsa hali buni qilmagan.- I've done everything, but he hasn't done it yet.


bo’lmasa – otherwise, in that case, then

Mayli bo'lmasa, ertaga uchrashamiz. - Okay, then we'll see you tomorrow.


lekin – but; however

ammo – but, though, however

biroq – except, yet, however

U o'qiy oladi, lekin sekin. – He can read, but slowly.
Ammo, ishning muvaffaqiyati aniq emas. – However, the success of the work is not certain.
Suqrot mening do'stim, biroq haqiqat muhimroqdir. – Socrates is my friend, but the truth is dearer to me.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июл 22, 2022 10:40

Compound words to memorize - 2:



bormoq - to go

borib-borib - over time, gradually, little by little; in the end.


bo'lmoq - to be, to take place, happen

bo'lib-bo'lib - piece y piece, in parts.


kelmoq - to come

kelib-kelib - subsequently; finally, in the end;


sakramoq - to jump

sakrab-sakrab - ride with difficulty


yov - enemy

yov-yov - enemy attack; fighting, battle


gajak - curl, lock, ringlet (on forehead); a silver or gold ornament resembling a

ringlet and worn by women on the forehead; curled

gajak-gajak - all curly, full of curls


katak - coop, pen; square; cell, chamber; nostril; checkered

katak-katak - made up of many chambers, squares


lo'ppak - mature, full, ripe (usu. cotton)

lo'ppak-lo'ppak - lush, fluffy


teshik - hole, opening

teshik-teshik OR ilma-teshik - full of holes, riddled with holes


chakak - lower jaw

chakak-chakak - emaciated, thin, haggard, hollow-cheeked
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июл 22, 2022 11:24

***

Present Continuous Tense




In the Uzbek language, there is a tense similar to the English Present Continuous. It expresses a state, event or action which is taking place at the same time it is being reported.

Use the affix “yap” and personal ending present tense.

In the case of the 3rd person, instead of the personal ending "di", you need to use "ti". This is due to the voiceless ending of the affix "yap".


So, presonal endings:


1st person, singular: “man”; plural: “miz”

2nd person, singular: “san”; plural: “siz”

3rd person, verb, singular: “ti”; plural: “ti(lar)”



The affix "lar" is optional, in practice, Uzbeks usually don't say it.

As in the case of the Present-Future tense, the personal pronoun is usually omitted unless deliberately emphasizing who is doing the action. A leading pronoun is redundant - its meaning is already present in the personal suffix at the end of the verb.



Examples:


(uxlamoq – to sleep)

Hozir uxlayapman – I’m sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapsan – You are sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapti – He is sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapmiz – We are sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapsiz – You are sleeping now

Hozir ular uxlayapti – They are sleeping now



Singlim maktabga boradi. Bugun u she'r yodlayapti. – My sister goes to school. Today he is memorizing a poem.

Vazifani bajaryapsizmi? – Are you completing a task?

Nega o'ynamayapsiz? – Why aren't you playing? (o’ynamoq – to play)

Men hozir uy quryapman. – I am building a house now.



There are two more ways to construct the Uzbek Present Continuous:


1. verb + moq + da + personal ending

2. verb + ("a" or "y") + yotir + personal ending (This form is usually used in the literature)


In both cases, in the case of a third person, the personal ending is not used!


Examples:


Ukam Navoiyning she'rlarini yodlamoqda. – My brother is memorizing Navoi's poems.

Navoiyning she'rlarini yodlamoqdaman. – I am memorizing Navoi's poems.


Qayerdan kelayotirsiz? – Where are you coming from? (kelmoq – to come)

Buxorodan kelayotirman. – I am coming from Bukhara.

Hozir ham balki Jim o‘ylayotir. – Maybe even now Jim is thinking.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт авг 05, 2022 16:54

***

Word order in sentence


1. We put the subject at the beginning of the sentence, and only attributives or adjunct of place and time can precede it.

2. The predicate is placed exclusively at the end of the sentence.

3. The dependent members of the sentence come before the principal one.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт авг 05, 2022 16:55

***

Yovvoyi hayvonlari - Wild animals:


Tulki - Fox

Ayiq - Bear

Kiyik - Deer

Quyon - Rabbit

Bo'ri - Wolf

Olmaxon - Squirrel

Fil - Elephant

Sher - Lion

Yo'lbars - Tiger

Maymun - Monkey



Uy hayvonlari - Domestic animals:


Ot - Horse

Toychoq - Сolt (young horse)

Eshak - Donkey

Xo'tik - Colt (young donkey)

Sigir - Cow

Buzoq - Calf

Tuya - Camel

Bo'taloq - Young camel

Echki - Goat

Uloqcha - Goatling

Qo'y - Sheep

Qo'zichoq - Lamb

It - Dog

Kuchukcha - Puppy

Pishak - Cat

Pishakcha - Kitten

Go'z - Goose

G'oz bolasi - Gosling

Tovuq - Hen

Jo'ja - Chicken

O'rdak - Duck

O'rdakcha - Duckling
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