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Узбекский / Английский

Модератор: Dragan

Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 09:33

Hammaga salom!

Я увлекаюсь изучением узбекского языка, как наиболее интересного для меня из тюркских.

Одновременно я пишу методику изучения узбекского для англоговорящих. Зачем? Это помогает моему изучению языка; надеюсь, что кому-то мои наработки также пригодятся. Почему английский, а не русский? Потому, что мне так интереснее. Кроме того, меня интересуют общие места в германских и тюркских языках (не заимствования); эта тема, видимо, мало изучена.

Материалы выкладываю на своем телеграм-канале. Теперь решил выкладывать и здесь, попутно дорабатывая свои тексты и исправляя ошибки. Очень надеюсь на критику: я не профессиональный лингвист, вся моя практика в английском ограничена чтением технической и научной литературы.

Материал очень сырой, до профессиональных методик ему далеко. Есть заимствованные "в интернете" и не переработанные блоки.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 09:57

*********************************************************************************



Uzbek, like other Turkic languages, is interesting for its logic, consistency. This is its difference from modern Germanic languages, those formed by multiple mixing of Slavic and Germanic languages and multiple compromises between them. The Turkic languages have not changed much over the centuries, keeping the pure logic of constructing words and sentences...


The Uzbek language has 2 alphabets. One is based on the Latin alphabet, the other is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. The Latin based alphabet consists of 26 letters, three digraphs sh, ch and ng, and an apostrophe. The Cyrillic based alphabet consists of 35 letters.




Cyrillic:


А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж

З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о

П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц

Ч ч Ш ш Ъ ъ Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я Ў ў

Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ



Latin:


А а B b D d Е е F f G g H h I i

J j K k L l М m N n О о P p Q q

R r S s Т t U u V v X x Y y Z z

Oʻ oʻ Gʻ gʻ Sh sh Ch ch Ng ng






Pronunciation of letters:



" A " as in the word "cat"

" B " as in the word "bat"

" D " as in the word "den"

" E " as in the word "bet"

" F " as in the word "fish"

" G " as in the word "go"

" H " as in the word "house"

" I " as in the word "me"

" J " as in the word "joke" or as in "vision"

" K " as in the word "cold"

" L " as in the word "list"

" M " as in the word "man"

" N " as in the word "next"

" O " as in the word "hot" or as in "call"

" P " as in the word "pin"

" Q " like a " K ", but further back in the throat

" R " as in the word "rat" (trilled, like in Russian)

" S " as in the word "sick"

" T " as in the word "toe"

" U " as in the word "put" or as in "choose"

" V " as in the word "van"

" X " - "ch" as in German "Bach" or Scottish "loch"

" Y " as in the word "yes"

" Z " as in the word "zebra"

" O' " as in the word "row", "fur"

" G' " like a French or German "r"

" Sh " as in the word "shoe"

" Ch " as in the word "chew"

" Ng " as in the word "king"



Apostrophe is used either

1) to mark the phonetic glottal stop when put immediately before a vowel or

2) to mark a long vowel when placed immediately after a vowel.






markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 10:04

Examples with " a ":


ana - that, there (points to something distant)

mana - this, here (points to something close)



aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ana aka - that is the older brother

mana uka - this is the younger brother

mana aka-uka - these are brothers


Attention!

Almost always, the stress in Uzbek words is put on the last syllable!
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 11:24

Examples with " i ":


ip - thread

igna (nina) - needle

iz - track(s)

imzo - signature


Misollar - Examples:


Mana ip - This is a thread

Ana ip - That is a thread

Mana nina (igna) - This is a needle

Mana iz - This is a track (These are tracks)

Mana imzo - This is signature



Examples with " o ":


non - bread

bola - child

ol - take

olma – apple


Misollar - Examples:


Mana non - This is a bread

Mana bola - This is a child

Karim, nonni ol - Karim, take a bread

Lola, olmani ol - Lola, take an apple



Attention!

In Uzbek, the predicate is at the end of a sentence!
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 11:26

Examples with " u ":


bu - this, "this is"


uzum - vine, grapes

uchun - for

uy - home

uzun - long


Misollar - Examples:


Bu olma - This is an apple

Sardor, bu olmani ol - Sardor, take this apple

Mana uy - This is a home

Mana uzum - This is a vine

Umida, uzumdan ol - Umida, take these grapes

Mana Karim uchun uy - This house is for Karim

Bu uzum shirin - These grapes are sweet

Aziz, uzumdan ol - Aziz, take these grapes

Sevara uchun uzum ol - Take these grapes for Sevara


Uzbek prepositions are always placed after the word to which they refer!
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 11:45

Examples with " e ":


etik - high boot

eshik - door

el - people

erkak - man

ertaga - tomorrow

echki - goat

kelmoq - to come


The affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 11:51

Misollar - Examples:


Bu echki - This is a goat

Mana eshik - Here is the door

Ana etik - There is a high boot

Karim, ertaga kel - Karim, come tomorrow

Aziz, etikni ol - Aziz, take the high boot

Tursun, eshikni och - Tursun, open the door

Lola, echkini olib ket - Lola, take the goat away


Attention!

There are no prefixes in the Uzbek language (except for those borrowed from Farsi) (777). But there are many affixes that go in a certain order after the root of the word. The root of a word, as a rule, consists of 1-2 syllables; the main part of the word is often a set of affixes.

The affix "-ni" is used in the accusative case.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 12:55

Examples with " o' ":


to‘rt - four

bo‘r - chalk

ko‘z - eye

ko‘cha - street

do‘st - friend

so‘z - word

o‘z - own, -self-


Misollar - Examples:


Mana bo‘r - Here is the chalk

Tursun, bo‘rni ol - Tursun, take the chalk

Uzun ko‘cha - Long street

So‘zlarni o‘qing - Read the words

O'z oilam - My own family

Men buni o'zim qilaman - I do it myself



Examples with " q ":


qor - snow

quyosh - sun

quloq - ear, ears

qog‘oz - paper

o‘rtoq - comrade

qishloq - village


Misollar - Examples:


Qor yog‘di - It was snowing

Quyosh nurlari - Sun rays

Quloq solmoq - listen

Yozuv qog‘ozi - Writing paper

Qo‘shni qishloq - Neighboring village



Examples with " g' ":


g‘oz - goose

bog’ - garden

tog’ - mountain

g‘alaba - victory

g‘ayrat - energy, ardour


Misollar - Examples:


G‘oz bolasi - Gosling

G‘oz go‘shti - Goose meat

Mevazor bog’ - Orchard

Tog’ etagi - Foot of the mountain

Tog’ cho‘qqisi - Peak

G‘alaba qozonmoq - To win a victory

G‘ayrat qilmoq - To act energetically



Examples with " h ":


ham - and, both

hayot - life

hozir - now

hazil - joke

hikoya - story

hamma - all

hafta - week

harakat - movement, motion


Misollar - Examples:


Ko‘cha harakati — Street traffic

Men ham o‘qiyman, sen ham o‘qiysan — And I will teach, and you will

Hayot kechirmoq — To spend life, to live

Hazil qilmoq — To joke (qilmoq - to do)

Hikoyalar to‘plami — Collection of stories

Hamma narsa — All things

O‘tgan hafta — Last week



Examples with " j ":


juda - very

juma - Friday

jo‘ja - chicken

jim - calm, quiet

janjal - scandal

janub - south



Examples with " ng ":


ong — consciousness

tong — dawn

bong — scream

jang — battle
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 12:58

Kishilik olmoshlari - Personal pronouns


Men — I

Sen — Thou

U — He, She, It

Biz — We

Siz — You

Ular — They


Attention!

In Uzbek, as in other Turkic languages, there is no grammatical gender.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 12:59

So‘roq olmoshlari - Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronoun Kim? - Who? - is used only in relation to people, and in relation to everything else Nima? - What?

Misollar — Examples:


– Bu kim? – Who is this?
– Bu Rustam. – This is Rustam.

– U kim? – Who is it?
– U – muhandis. – He is an engineer.

– Siz kimsiz? – Who are you?
– Men shifokorman. – I am a doctor.

– Bu nima? – What is this?
– Bu kitob. – This is a book.

– Mana bu nima? – What is this?
– Mana bu avtobus. – This is a bus.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 13:07

Interrogative sentences are constructed in three ways:


1. Using interrogative particles (mi, -chi, -a):

Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - It is a good book, isn't it? (kitob - book)

Siz talabamisiz? - Are you a student? (talaba - student; -siz - 2nd person plural affix)

U-chi? What about him?

U shifokor-a? - He is a doctor, isn't he?


2. Using interrogative pronouns:

Ana bu nima? - What is there?


3. Using interrogative intonation:

Soat ikki bo'ldi? - It's two o'clock now (isn't it)?
(soat = hour, ikki = two, bo'ldi = was (bo'l = is, -di = past tense affix))


The word order in the interrogative sentence is usually the same as in the answer. That is, the interrogative pronoun is in the place of the word containing the answer.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср июн 22, 2022 13:21

Important affix "LAR”:


"Lar” is the main prefix for the plural:

bolalar – children, so‘zlar – words, tog’lar – mountains etc.


In some cases, this affix can be used not only with nouns, but also with other parts of speech, for example, with verbs:

Qidirdilar, ammo topolmadilar - They searched, but could not find.


In addition, this affix is used to convey a respectful attitude:

otamlar - my dear father, onamlar - my dear mother;

Xush kelibsizlar! - Welcome dear guest!
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 11:19

Egalik qo‘shimchalari - Possessive affixes


The Uzbek language has possessive affixes that are attached to names to indicate that a given object belongs to any person or object.


After the final vowel:

1st person, singular: “m”; plural: “miz
2nd person, singular: “ng”; plural: “ngiz
3rd person, singular: “si”; plural: “si” or “lari

After the final consonant:

1st person, singular: “im”; plural: “imiz
2nd person, singular: “ing”; plural: “ingiz
3rd person, singular: “i”; plural: “i” or “lari

This refers to the person and number inherited from the person or thing to which the object belongs.

In the third person, the number is not inherited. The affix "lari" = "lar"+"i", here "lar" gives us the plural of the subordinate object.


Examples:

my house –uyim; our house –uyimiz;
my houses –uylarim; our houses - uylarimiz;

your (thy) house –uying; your house - uyingiz;
your (thy) houses –uylaring; your houses - uylaringiz;

his house - uyi; their house –uyi;
his houses - uylari; their houses –uylari.


Examples with a final vowel:

otam – my father
otang – your (thy) father
otasi – his (her) father
otamiz – our father
otangiz – your father
otasi – their father


Examples with a final consonant:

maktabim – my school
maktabing – your (thy) school
maktabi – his (her) school
maktabimiz – our school
maktabingiz – your school
maktabi – their school


Examples – sentences:

Kitobim qani? — Where is my book?
Kitobingni ol — Take your book.
Kitobini ber — Give me his (her) book.
Kitobingni o‘qi — Read your book.
Kitobimni o‘qi — Read my book.
Kitobingni o‘qiyman — I will read your book.
Kitobimiz kimda? —Who has our book?
Kitobingiz stolda —Your book is on the table.
Kitobingizni kim o‘qidi? —Who has read your book?
Kitobingizni men o‘qidim — I read your book.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 11:22

Names of the days of the week:


Yakshanba - Sunday
Dushanba - Monday
Seshanba - Tuesday
Chorshanba - Wednesday
Payshanba - Thursday
Juma - Friday
Shanba - Saturday
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:14

Examples of yes/no questions:


Aziz shanba kuni ishladimi? - Did Aziz work on Saturday?
Ha, Aziz shanba kuni ishladi. - Yes, Aziz worked on Saturday.
Yo‘q, Aziz shanba kuni ishlamadi. - No, Aziz did not work on Saturday.

Sen hafta kunlarini aytib bera olasanmi? - Can you name the days of the week?
Ha, aytib bera olaman, marhamat. - Yes, I can, please.

Siz shanba kuni ishlaysizmi? — Do you work on Saturday?
Dushanba kuni majlis bo‘ladimi? — Will there be a meeting on Monday?

Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradimi? (or "Lola dushanbada ishga boradimi?") - Will Lola go to work on Monday?
Ha, Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradi. - Yes, Lola will go to work on Monday.
Seshanba kuni-chi? - And on Tuesday?
Seshanba kuni ham boradi. (or "Seshanbada ham boradi") - Yes, and on Tuesday, too, will go.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:14

Interrogative sentences can be formed using the following interrogative pronouns:


Kim?, Kimlar? — Who? (We say "Kimlar" if we know that there are several persons)
Nima?, Nimalar? — What? (We say "Nimalar" if we know there are multiple items)

Qanday? — Which?, What kind of...?, How?
Qanday qilib? - How?, In what way?

Qaysi? — What kind of...? - Which?
Qaysi biri? - Which one of...?

Qancha?, Necha? — How much?, How many?
Nechta? — How many (items)?
Nechanchi? — Which (one) is on the bill?

Qachon? — When?
Qachondan beri? — Since when?

Qayerda? - Where?
Qayerga? - In which direction?
Qayerdan? - Where from?

Nega? - Why?
Nimaga? - Why? For what?
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:15

Examples of wh–questions:


Bu qanday qalam? Bu qora qalam.
What kind of pencil is this? This is a black pencil.

Bu qaysi ko'cha? Bu yangi ko'cha.
Which street is this? This is a new street.

Siz qayerda o'qiysiz? Men universitetda o'qiyman.
Where do you study? I am studying at university.

U nimaga qiziqadi? U tarixga qiziqadi.
What is he interested in? He is interested in history.

Siz haftaning qaysi kuni dam olasiz?
Which day of the week do you rest?

Haftaning qaysi kunlari ishlaysiz?
What days of the week do you work?

Yakshanba kuni qayerga bormoqchisiz?
Where do you want to go on Sunday?
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:18

There are 2 features of the use of possessive affixes:


1. At the root of some words, a vowel in the second syllable disappears:

singil (sister) – singlim, singlimiz, singling, singlingiz, singlisi (my sister, our sister, …);

shahar (town) – shahrim, …;

bo'yin (neck) – bo'ynim, …;

qorin (belly) – qornim, …, qorni.

Voy qornim! = Woe is me!


2. At the root of two-syllable words ending in the consonants k or q,

- k changes to g: ko'ylak (shirt) – ko'ylagi, chelak (bucket) – chelagi, yurаk (heart) – yurаgi,

- q changes to g': o'rtoq (comrade) – o'rtog'i, qishloq (village) – qishlog'i, bo’tаlоq (little camel) – bo’tаlоg’i.
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:20

Numeral


son - numeral, number
yil – year
oy - month
hafta – week
kun - day
soat – hour


Numerals are divided into cardinal (miqdor son) and ordinal (tartib son).
Cardinal numerals answer the questions "Qancha?", "Nechta?", "Necha?".
Ordinal numerals answer the question "nechanchi" (which) and are formed by adding suffixes to cardinal numerals:

-nchi (after final vowels);
-inchi (after final consonants).


1 – bir
2 – ikki
3 – uch
4 – to’rt
5 – besh
6 – olti
7 – yetti
8 – sakkiz
9 – to’qqiz
10 – o’n
20 – yigirma
30 – o’ttiz
40 – qirq
50 – ellik
60 – oltmish
70 – yetmish
80 – sakson
90 – to’qson
100 – yuz
1000 – ming
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:21

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